The process of cutting large stone blocks is as crucial as it is difficult to realise. Below is a description of how this process is carried out, which tools are utilised, and which are the possible cuttings of building stone.
How is stone cut?
Stone cutting is a broad and multidimensional category because it involves multiple factors: two of these are the type of stone and its implementation. It’s therefore critical, during this process, to take a close look at what kind of stone is being cut.
The main types of natural stone are: precious stones such as diamonds, emerald, and rubies, semi-precious stones such as turquoise agate, decorative stones such as granite, travertine and basalt, and building stones like sandstone.
Stones must be cut with the right tool. Sawn blocks and slate stones are cut into slabs and sheets of various thicknesses, sizes and shapes, depending on the order. After the quarried stone slabs and blocks have been transferred to masonry factories, they are processed for their final use. The stone cutting process comprises different types of cut: peak, sawn, longitudinal, head, broken, forty and twenty.
How building stone is cut
The cutting of building stones is particularly important because most natural stone is employed for the construction of buildings, building facades and interior decorations. As mentioned earlier, the way the stone has to be cut and what means are necessary to do so entirely depend on the characteristics of the stone and its intended use.
The stone can be polished with a single-blade machine made of steel blades with approximately 35-37 diamond teeth, if needed. Cutting machines or diamond and steel wires can also be used in place of single-slide machines. The stone block is cut from one or multiple sides, resulting in a smooth surface with a regular and proportionate shape, perfect to be sawn.
Stone cutting machines are divided into portable and workshop machines. Portable machines are best for situations where masonry has to be carried out directly on site. These are typically used for rocks with a length of 65-265 cm.
However, stones that exceed these dimensions can only be cut using workshop machines. The components of a stone cutting machine are: the main motor, the helical motor guide of the machine, the water pump, the metal frame, the frame of the saw blade, the fixed and mobile bag.
Other stone cutting tools include a stone scrap machine, a stone gage machine (to integrate the surface and thickness of the stone), a single-disc and two-disc grading machine (for longitudinal cuts), a table machine, a female machine tool (for zinc engraving), building stones, soft saw blade, hard saw blade, stone cutting mill, bar top, head saw and longitudinal machine.
Types of cut
The minute stone enters a factory to be cut, it is subjected to several processes. Soft cutting machines are used to cut stones. First off, the cut is done with a saw or with a spike. The saw itself can be soft or hard.
Cuttings include longitudinal cut (for example, for under stairs and near stairs), head cut (stone cut in the form of a carpet), side cut, Persian vase cut (on the edges of the stone for cleaning the facade stone), cutting of the conical, etc.